Amatino Swift v0.0.5 Released

Amatino is a double entry accounting API, and Amatino Swift allows macOS & iOS developers to utilise Amatino in a Swift application. v0.0.5 is a major new Alpha release introducing the Ledger class, and some attendant smaller changes.

  • Added new Ledger class
  • Added new RecursiveLedger class
  • Added new LedgerPage class, a low level class underpinning Ledger and RecursiveLedger
  • Added new LedgerRow struct, used by Ledgers
  • parentAccount renamed to parent in AccountCreateArguments initialisers
  • AccountType is now inferred by AccountCreateArguments when a parent is supplied
  • Added new Account.create() async initialisers for various attribute mixes
  • Transaction will now throw ConstraintError if debits & credits do not balance on creation
  • Fixed a bug whereby all times sent to the Amatino API were in local system timezone rather than UTC
  • Added new Ledger-related unit tests

Retrieving a Ledger

Multiple Ledger.retrieve() overloads are available, allowing you to tailor the Ledger to your needs. For example, you might want to retrieve a specific timeframe or denominate the ledger in a particular unit (e.g. a non-native currency). You can also reverse-order the Ledger such that the first pages retrieves the most recent transactions.

RecursiveLedger syntax is identical to Ledger, but delivers every Transaction in the target Account and all of its children.


Amatino Swift may be installed via Carthage. Add github "amatino-code/amatino-swift"to your Cartfile.

Enjoy, and be sure to tell me what you think!

– Hugh

API v0.0.5 Released – Ledger Changes

A new version of the Amatino API has been deployed to all regions. 0.0.5 contains breaking changes to the Ledger object, and is not backward compatible with 0.0.4.

  • Ledgers may now only be retrieved one at a time
  • Ledgers are now paginated in rows of 500
  • Ledgers may now be returned in order of ascending or descending transaction time
  • Ledgers now require a order_oldest_first boolean argument
  • Returned Ledger root type is now a JSON Object rather than a JSON Array
  • Returned Ledger start_time and end_time will now be the start and end of the Ledger window, rather than the earliest and latest Transaction in the Ledger
  • Ledger end_time will now default to now at UTC if supplied as null
  • Ledger start_time will now default to end_time – 1 year if supplied as null
  • Fixed a bug that could cause Amatino to return a stale cached Ledger when null had previously been provided as a Ledger start time
  • Fixed a bug that caused Transactions to be stored with incorrect times (The transaction_time field was not being properly interpreted as UTC)

All the above changes also apply identically to the RecursiveLedger object.

The Amatino API obeys the Semantic Versioning convention: Any version before 1.0.0 should be considered unstable, and breaking changes may occur at any time. Even so, I don’t want to cause breaking changes unnecessarily, and don’t take this lightly.

These changes are aimed at making Ledger objects more useful in real world applications. They are the result of experimentation during development of the upcoming Amatino Swift v0.0.5.

– Hugh

Api v0.0.4 Released – Position & Performance

A new version of the Amatino API, v0.0.4, is now live and running in all regions. 0.0.4 is backward-compatible with 0.0.3, and makes the following changes:

  • Add new ‘Position‘ object
  • Add new ‘Performance‘ object
  • Fix bug causing Trees to display negative balances in <> instead of ()
  • Fix bug causing Trees to sometimes miscalculate the balance of income or expenses accounts in non-native denominations

Position & Performance were not the features I expected to be working on this week. In fact, I had not ever thought of building them at all. Last weekend, I posted Amatino to HackerNews. Lots of great feedback flowed in.

A consistent theme was: “where are the reporting tools?” In my grand-vision, Amatino is a data layer sitting below reporting in an application stack. However, an email from a prospective customer gave me a jolt. They asked: ‘Can Amatino create a balance sheet?’

Well no, it can’t, I answered. I started to type a response about how a balance sheet is too domain-specific, not a generic enough construct, and that it could be constructed in application logic out of the base components Amatino provides. Then it hit me that I was very wrong.

Abstract it back far enough, and a balance sheet is a snapshot of the position of an entity in time. We call it various names and format it in various ways, but it is at its core a very simple way of observing asset, liability, and equity accounts.

The same appears to hold true for income statements. They are, in their most generalised form, a measurement of the performance of an entity over a period of time.

Thought of in this way, balance sheets and income statements become generic objects. They are fully compatible with Amatino’s mission as a provider of generic, jurisdiction-agnostic functions for manipulating financial data.

Armed with this new thinking, I set out to add in-built capability to produce Position and Performance objects, which may be extended by an application to produce balance sheets and income statements.

Creating these objects was, fortunately, quite painless. Most of the machinery used to build them is repurposed from the Tree production line. In particular, the ability to generate a Position or Performance in any denominating unit is lifted straight from the code that builds Trees.

Trees, Positions, and Performances are by far the most complex objects Amatino can synthesise. The algorithms that compute them make my head spin.

That’s a roundabout way of saying: There will be bugs. Positions and Performances have been integrated into the API unit-testing suite at a shallow level. It will take time to build more comprehensive testing. More testing is most especially required around the production of Positions and Performances in arbitrary denominations featuring heterogeneous underlying native units.

The most important takeaway from all this is: Thank you for your feedback. By telling me what you want, you can shape Amatino’s development.

– Hugh

Documentation update: Trees

This morning I realised, to my substantial embarrassment, that Trees were missing from the Amatino API HTTP documentation.

Trees are, in my humble opinion, the most exciting object the Amatino API can build. They are hierarchical structures of every Account in an Entity, including balances, recursive balances. They are a great way to get a whole-Entity picture.

Somehow, I had ommitted them from the docs. That omission is now fixed! In future, I will need to do some work to flesh out the related Tree Node documentation. It is not yet clear how the Tree Node behaves when it omits data due to a lack of read permissions on a particular Account.

– Hugh

Documentation update: Unit Identifiers

The Amatino API HTTP documentation has been updated. This update corrects errors in references to Global Units and Custom Units. Previously, the documentation stated that such units should be identified by their string codes. For example, 'usd' for U.S. Dollars.

Now, the documentation states that units should be identified by their integer identifiers. For example, 5 for U.S. Dollars.

This error was the result of some earlier experiments with removing integer unit identifiers in favour of string identifiers. The experiments did not go well, and lots of problems resulted. So, I reverted to integer identifiers, but forgot to update the documentation.

Amatino Swift v0.0.4 Released

Amatino Swift allows MacOS and iOS developers to build double-entry accounting functionality into their apps. Until today’s v0.0.4 release, it was a bit tricky to install. To make installation easy, Amatino Swift is now compatible with Carthage. Carthage is a Swift dependency manager. In the project’s own words:

Carthage is intended to be the simplest way to add frameworks to your Cocoa application.

Carthage builds your dependencies and provides you with binary frameworks, but you retain full control over your project structure and setup. Carthage does not automatically modify your project files or your build settings.

You can install Carthage by downloading and running Carthage.pkg from the Carthage project releases page.

Installing Amatino Swift with Carthage

Navigate to your project directory, and create a file named “Cartfile“. Inside that file, add the line github "amatino-code/amatino-swift". You can create the file, and insert the required line into the file, with the following command:

$ echo 'github "amatino-code/amatino-swift"' > Cartfile

Next, tell Carthage to download the Amatino Swift repository and compile MacOS and iOS frameworks, by running the following command inside your project directory:

$ carthage update

Once the process is complete, you should have Amatino.framework binaries available in the Carthage/Build/Mac and Carthage/Build/iOS directories.

The following instructions are applicable to MacOS applications. Instructions for iOS are broadly similar, and all instructions are available in detailed form in the Carthage project documentation.

Embedding Amatino in a MacOS application

Drag the binaries for your target platforms to the Embedded Binaries section of your Xcode project.

Next, to enable debugging, create a Copy Files phase in your target’s Build Phases tab:

Inside the phase, select Products Directory from the Destination drop down menu.

Finally, drag the Amatino.framework.dSYMfile into the Add files here section.

For more detailed instructions, check out the Carthage project documentation.

Where to next?

Now that Amatino Swift is easier to install, it’s time to smash together more functionality. In particular, I’d like to get Ledgers working as soon as possible.

Have a preferred method of installing Swift Frameworks? Please tell me about it on Twitter, on the forums, or via email. I would love to hear from you, and develop Amatino Swift in such a way as to make it easy for you to install.

– Hugh

Amatino Swift v0.0.3 Released

A new version of Amatino Swift is available. Amatino Swift is library / framework that lets MacOS and iOS developers build double-entry accounting functionality into their applications. v0.0.3 is backwards compatible with v0.0.2, and makes the following changes:

  • Add new Balance class
  • Add new RecursiveBalance class
  • Add new GlobalUnitList class
  • Add new Transaction.createMany() method
  • Add unit tests covering all of the above
  • Remove some debugging cruft & dead code

These features build on v0.0.2’s progress toward making Amatino Swift easy to use. Where in the past you would need to manually encode and decode Data responses via the AmatinoAlpha class, you now have more expressive, clean, and simple syntax at your disposal.

Balance & RecursiveBalance

Balance and RecursiveBalance allow you to retrieve the balance of a particular account. In practice, that means the total of all debits & credits party to that account. A ‘recursive’ balance totals debits and credits for the target account, and any child accounts.

Balances can be retrieved for any combination of date and denomination. For example, you might have an account denominated in U.S. Dollars, but be interested in retrieving its balance in Euros.

Here’s an example of Balance.retrieve() in action:

RecursiveBalance.retrieve() syntax is identical.


You can already create single Transactions using Transaction.create(). createMany()allows you to create up to ten Transactions in a single request. This dramatically reduces the round-trip latency suffered when you have more than one Transaction to insert.

createMany() is fed by lists of TransactionCreateArguments structs. Here’s an example:


v0.0.2 introduced the GlobalUnit class, without a way to list available Global Units! Enter GlobalUnitList, which will provide you with, you guessed it, a list of all available Global Units! Here’s how to use it:

There are 36 currencies available. You can look for a specific GlobalUnit in the GlobalUnitList with it’s unitWith(code:) method:


I’m in the process of creating Carthage and Cocoapods distributions for Amatino Swift. In the mean time, compiled libraries are available on GitHub. You are also most welcome to clone the repo and compile Amatino Swift yourself.

Still to come

Many objects specified in the Amatino API HTTP documentation are not yet available in Amatino Swift. For example, account Ledgers. Further, available objects are missing some critical methods, like Transaction.delete().

Look out for v0.0.4 and onwards to add yet more capability to Amatino Swift. Let me know how you want Amatino Swift to develop on Twitter or on the forums. Sign up to the Development Newsletter to be notified when new versions of Amatino Swift are available.

– Hugh

API v0.0.3 Released

A new version of the Amatino API has been deployed to all regions. v0.0.3 is not fully backwards compatible with v0.0.2. v0.0.3 makes the following changes:

  • Fixed a bug which could cause Balance retrieval to yield null
  • Replaced <> characters with () to denote negative values

The second change is the big bad backwards compatibility breaker. Say you recorded a debit of $10 against an asset account. In 0.0.1, Amatino would have retrieved the balance as <10.00>.  Now, it will return (10.00).

To be honest, I have no idea why I was using <> to begin with. There might have been some logic to it, perhaps because it is the default for negative numbers in PostgreSQL. But it’s not appropriate for an accounting system, where convention heavily favours ().

A screenshot showing progress in a unit test run. Many tests had to be adjusted for compatibility with 0.0.3

This kind of breaking change is not something I take lightly. Amatino obeys the Semantic Versioning convention, wherein versions before 1.0.0 may make breaking changes at any time. Regardless, I want breaking changes to be few and far between, if they must occur at all.

In future, once Amatino hits 1.0.0 and is stabilised, a breaking change would be pushed to a new major version and would require opt-in. You will never have to worry about a breaking change after 1.0.0.

– Hugh

Amatino Swift v0.0.2 Released

A new version of the Amatino API Swift library is available. Amatino Swift allows you to store double-entry accounting data in a Swift application, on iOS or MacOS.

v0.0.2 includes:

  • New Entity class, including create() & retrieve() methods
  • New Account class, including create() & retrieve() methods
  • New Transaction class, including create() & retrieve() methods
  • New Entry struct, with comprehensive initialisers
  • New GlobalUnit class, including retrieve() method
  • Expose Session class for use outside AmatinoAlpha instances
  • Unit tests for all of the above

Taken together, these changes allow you to interact with the Amatino API much more easily than in 0.0.1. 0.0.1 was fully dependent on the AmatinoAlpha class – A thin wrapper around HTTP requests that required you to deal with your own data encoding, and parse raw Data responses from the Amatino API.

Amatino Swift 0.0.2 tests
Some of the new tests included in 0.0.2


I’m still studying the best way to distribute iOS and MacOS libraries. Right now I am leaning towards CocoaPods, and would welcome any input you might have. In the mean time, compiled libraries are available on GitHub. You are also most welcome to clone the repo and compile Amatino Swift yourself.

Example Usage

Here are some examples the new capabilities available in Amatino Swift v0.0.2:

Create a Session

This is analogous to ‘logging in’. You’ll notice the session is passed as a parameter throughout following examples.

Create an Entity

Entities are beings you wish to describe with accounting information. For example, a person, company, country, or project.


Still to come

The majority of objects specified in the Amatino API HTTP documentation are still not available in Amatino Swift. One glaring example is the Global Unit List – How are you supposed to retrieve Global Units if you don’t know which ones are available!?

Look out for v0.0.3 and onwards to add the missing pieces of the puzzle. Let me know how you want Amatino Swift to develop on Twitter or on the forums. Sign up to the Development Newsletter to be notified when new versions of Amatino Swift are available.

– Hugh